Scientific Studies Conducted by The Werc Shop
In a search for more information that has been collected in a proper, intelligent and accurate fashion we have either been commissioned, or took it upon ourselves, to independently investigate novel questions about medical cannabis. How the plant material behaves, what may be associated with certain aspects of its use, both clean and when contaminated, are all important aspects to know in order to help enable patients and regulators to best handle this botanical medication.
Original Peer Reviewed Articles
The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 2015 – “Understanding dabs: contamination concerns of cannabis concentrates and cannabinoid transfer during the act of dabbing” by Jeffrey C. Raber, Sytze Elzinga, and Charles Kaplan. This timely publication describes the results of a survey of concentrate based products available in the medical cannabis market in California. Disturbingly a considerable amount of contamination was observed. Additionally, transfer rates of cannabinoids via inhalation during the act of dabbing was also studied and presented.
Natural Products Research & Chemistry, 2015 – “Cannabinoids and Terpenes as Chemotaxonomic Markers in Cannabis” by Sytze Elzinga, Justin Fischedick, Richard Podkolinski and Jeffrey C. Raber. This landmark publication describes a broad based chemical perspective of medical cannabis in California and details how strain names are often misidentified and mislabeled lending to confusion by patients. Analysis of the data shows how physiological responses to particular cultivars can not solely be implied by categorizations such as ‘sativa’ or ‘indica’ and that further development of a chemical based chemotaxonomic system to garner a firm understanding of particular patient physiological responses.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 2015 – “Cannabinoid Dose and Label Accuracy in Edible Medical Cannabis Products” by Ryan Vandrey, Jeffrey C. Raber, Mark E. Raber, Brad Douglass, Cameron Miller, Marcel O. Bonn-Miller. In collaboration with research scientists at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, we performed a study exploring label accuracy and overall cannabinoid content within edible products acquired through dispensaries in both California and Washington. Results were astounding as over 80% of the products acquired were not accurate, being more than 10% off of the label’s claimed cannabinoid value.
Natural Products Research & Chemistry, 2015 – “The Conversion and Transfer of Cannabinoids from Cannabis to Smoke Stream in Cigarettes” by Sytze Elzinga, Oscar Ortiz and Jeffrey C. Raber. This publication describes how the use of standardized pre-rolled cigarettes can lend towards predictable and consistent delivery of cannabinoids and the components available through inhalation via combustion of dried cannabis plant material. This study explored both THC and CBD transfers.
Journal of Toxicology, 2013 – “Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke” by Nicholas Sullivan, Sytze Elzinga and Jeffrey C. Raber. A peer reviewed scientific article that investigated the question of how much of a pesticide may be inhaled by a patient, to come to the conclusion that up to 70% in some cases depending on the chemical and the device used to combust and inhale the medication! A reviewer commented: This work is of good quality and an original and important contribution to the evaluation and quality assurance of the use of cannabis for medical purpose. It is the first attempt to my knowledge to get experimental data about the possible contamination of man by cannabis smoke.
Poster Presentations at Scientific Conferences
ICRS 2013 Poster in Vancouver, BC, Canada – “Determination of Pesticides in Cannabis Smoke” by Jeffrey C. Raber, Nicholas Sullivan, and Sytze Elzinga. Presentation describing the investigation of how much of a potential pesticide residue may be inhaled by a patient. Graphical summary of the finding that up to 70% of a pesticide may be inhaled depending on the chemical and specific device used. This single snapshot overview is a simplified version of the entire publication described above.
Does McFinn’s Triple-Filtered Water Pipe Reduce Contaminant Consumption? – In our first study, Scientific Inhalations asked us to design a study that would investigate the potential for one of their inhalation devices to reduce the ability to consume combustion contaminants. The device was found to effective reduce consumption of combustion contaminants.
Does McFinn’s Triple-Filtered Water Pipe Reduce Potential Pesticide Exposure? – Pleased with the results of the first investigations, Scientific Inhalations asked us to determine if pesticides could also be reduced in the inhalation stream. The cotton filter was found to be effective for the reduction of potential pesticide inhalation.
How well does the CVault keep medical cannabis stable? – FreshStor contracted us to design a study that would measure the impact of using CVault to store medical cannabis. The 160+ day long study clearly shows benefits to the patient in storing medicinal cannabis within a CVault to keep their medicinal products fresh while maintaining medicinal content stability.